Tribulus terrestris  
 

 

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Botanical Name : Tribulus terrestris
Common Name : 
Distribution :
Description :
Action : 
Part used : 
Therapeutic uses :

   
 

 
Chemical components: Tribulus is a herb that typically contains 6 main subcomponents. Protodioscin, Protodibestin and tribestin (gitogenin type) pseudoprotodioscin, dioscin, tribestin, and tribulosin.
The chemical make-up of the plant seems to vary by region of growth, with and Vietnamese/Indian tribulus lacking both tribestin and prototribestin (the gitogeninic type)and having higher levels of tribulosin.
Protodioscin, seen as the active muscle building compound (Tribulus' most heavily marketed claim), is highest in Turkey (Ankara), Bulgarian (Haskovo hirsut) and Macedonian (Bogdanzi glabr) respectively. These three species have more than double all other species. The Indian and vietnamese have approximately 50-150 times more tribulosin than other species, a number of which is in part to due the abysmal tribulosin content of the other species relative to their high dioscin family content.
Beyond the numerical differences of the above 6 compounds, Bulgarian Tribulus is the only extract to possess sulphated spirostanol and furostanol saponins[7] and chinese tribulus seems to be the only compound with cisA/B ring junctures in their saponins.
Much of the literature focuses on the extracts of Bulgarian, Chinese, and Indian origin; thus the extract source is of utmost importance when looking at biological effects due to varying constituents.
 
In vitro effects: A tribulus terrestris extract seems to be able to increase nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity (67%) and androgen receptor (AR) immunoreactivity (58%) in the rat brain when dosed at 5mg/kg bodyweight.
Tribulus terrestris seems to also be able to stimulate Melanocyte-stimulating hormone in hair follicles.

Hormonal Effects in vivo
Animal Models: In rabbits, the active compound of Tribulus Terrestris (Protodioscin) was shown to be ineffective as a pro-erectile agent on its own, but potentiated the pro-erectile effects of other known agents.
Human Interventions: Tribulus of Bulgarian origin has been shown to have no influence on total testosterone or luteinizing hormone levels when supplemented to healthy men in 200mg a day with a 60% saponin content. It does not seem to influence testosterone levels in females either.
When overall results on body composition and performance are measured, Tribulus supplementation does not appear to hold any difference realtive to placebo in weight trained men and rugby players at moderate to high doses (3.21mg/kg bodyweight and 450mg, respectively).
Some studies have shown various benefits of Tribulus supplementation, however they are confounded with coingestion of other nutrients.
The only known evidence showing testosterone increases in primates was via injection, with the increase being acute and falling back to baseline 90-180min afterwards.
One case study noted gynecomastia and reduced testosterone associated with Tribulus Terrestris supplementation, amidst other factors.

Aphrodisiac Effects:  There are numerous studies noting beneficial effects on sexual activity and desire in laboratory animals.

All herbs

Adenosma indianum - Aegle marmelos Correa - Aganosma marginata - Adenosma indianum - Allium satium - Allium tuberosum - Aloe vera - Alpinia galanga - Alpinia officinarum - Alstonia scholaris - Amomum krervanh - Andrographis paniculata - Arachis hypogaea - Boesenbergia pandurata - Bridelia burmanica - Canaga odorata - Capsicum annuum - Capsicum frutescens - Carica papaya - Carthamus tinctorius  - Cassia angustifolia - Cassia tora - Centella asiatica - Cinnamomum cassia - Clitoria ternatea - Coriandrum sativum - Curcuma Longa - Cymbopogon citratus - Eclipta prostrata - Elettaria cardamomum - Equisetum arvense  - Ganoderma lucidum - Ginkgo biloba - Glycine max - Hibiscus rosa-sinensis - Illicium verum - Jasmine - Lycium barbarum - Medicago sativa - Momordica charantia - Morinda officinalis - Moringa oliefera - Myristica fragrans - Nelumbo nucifera - Ocymum basilicum - Panax ginseng - Perilla frutescens - Phaseolus vulgaris - Phyllanthus emblica - Piper nigrum - Plumeriaalba - Plantago ovata - Ricinus - Sesamum indicum - Styrax tonkinense - Sassafras - Terminalia chebula  - Tribulus terrestris  - Zingiber officinal
 

Resources:
- Lavit KHAM  B.Sc (Chemistry),B.Pharm, MPS,MAACP, MNHAA
Medicinal Plants of Cambodia Habitat, Chemical constituents and Ethno botanical Uses
Bendigo Scientific Press   ISBN 0-646-43703-8  / 9780646437033
- Somanith BOUAMANIVONG & Onvilay SOURIYA Ministry of Health, Traditional Medicine Research Center, Editor Prof. Dr. Bouhong SOUTHAVONG, Vientiane 2005.
- Lily, M. PERRY. Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia, London, England 1978
- WHO Regional Publications, Western Pacific Series No 2
- Jules VIDAL, Noms vernaculaires de plantes (LAO, MEO, KHA) 1959
- Medicinal Plants in China 1989
- C. Pierce SALGUERO A Thai Herbal, Traditional Recipes for Health and Harmony, 2005
Silkworm Books www.silkwormbooks.info   ISBN 974-9575-74-1 

Acknowledgements:
- Dr. Sabine WILKINS Plant Physiology & Dr. Pauline Mc CABE Naturopathy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria Australia.
-
Prof. Roger KING, Pharmacology Toxicology, Monash University, Australia.
-
Chea SOK MENG, Cambodian pharmacist
-
Prof, Ka SUNBAUNAT Cambodian psychiatrist, Vice Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Phnom Penh.

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